RIG – the Reactive Interaction Gateway
…makes it easy to send messages from your back-end services to your front-ends.
RIG is a scalable, open source gateway to your microservices. It solves the problem of connection state (which users are online currently, with which devices), which allows your microservices to be stateless. Pushing arbitrary messages to all connected front-ends of a specific user becomes as easy as publishing a message to a Kafka topic.
Additionally, RIG comes with a basic API gateway implementation. This way, RIG can be used to communicate both ways between your microservices and your front-ends.
- Massively scalable, thanks to:
- Only using in-memory databases, along with eventually consistent cluster synchronization
- Erlang/OTP, the platform RIG is built on.
- Towards front-ends, support Server-Sent Events (SSE), WebSocket and HTTP long-polling connections.
- Supports privileged users that are able to subscribe to messages of other users.
- Supports JWT signature verification for APIs that need authentication with blacklisting for immediate invalidation of tokens.
Interested? Read on!
Why Accenture built it
Similar to how other microservice/serverless systems are built, we had lots of stateless services and an API gateway in front of it. An API gateway typically acts as a reverse proxy, forwarding requests from front-end to back-end services. The back-end services typically send back a reply, which is then forwarded back to the client.
Quite often, you’d like your user interface (UI) to display events as they occur (think “two customers are looking at this” on your favorite hotel-booking site). The simplest way to implement this is by having the front-end poll a back-end service for updates. However, this doesn’t scale well–resulting in a lot of extra traffic and a single service that is coupled to all services that emit interesting events.
The first problem is easy: to reduce traffic and get rid of potentially large notification delays, you could also have your reverse proxy forward a websocket connection, or something similar, to that back-end service.
The approach so far works well as long as you have a monolithic application, but fails in a microservice environment: it’s a single component coupled to most services in your system as it asks them for updates. Any change in any other service will affect it. We can solve this problem by decoupling the services using some kind of messaging service, like Kafka; now the back-end-for-front-ends service simply listens to the Kafka stream, to which all other services publish their events.
This is exactly what RIG does. It subscribes to Kafka topics, while holding connections to all active front-ends, forwarding events to the users they’re addressed to, all in a scalable way. And on top of that, RIG also handles authorization, so your services don’t have to care about that either.
How we built it
Our design goals:
- Handle huge numbers of active front-end connections simultaneously.
- Easily and massively horizontally scalable.
- Minimal impact on front-end code using open and established standards to choose from (SSE, WebSockets).
- Achieve a decent degree of fault-tolerance. Since RIG is envisioned as a central component in your infrastructure, it’s important that it virtually never goes down.
- Easy to use, simple to deploy (so far no external dependencies).
We wanted to use a modern language that would be easy to reason about and fun to work with, including a strong networking support and powerful concurrency primitives.
Our first prototype was written in Node.js. The app worked, but scaled very poorly in both directions. When we decided to rewrite RIG, we first thought about using Go, which is usually a good choice for network-heavy backend applications. However, after discussing in the development team, we chose Elixir, the upcoming, functional and dynamic language that runs on top of the battle-tested Erlang VM.
Erlang offers advanced primitives for location-transparent networking, by means of the actor model. This is important to our use case, as it allows us to rely on the VM to route messages to the right instances over the network. Scalability and fault-tolerance is where Erlang shines, so it seemed like a perfect match for our design goals. On top of that, we were in favor of the Erlang programming model, which allows for clean, functional abstractions, as well as efficient and maintainable error handling.
We have managed to implement the features we aimed for in about 2000 lines of code (excluding another 1400 lines for tests). It takes a bit to get used to the concepts, but Elixir indeed is fun to use.
There are three main sources of state in a RIG cluster:
- Whose device is connected to which node
- Which JWT is blacklisted
- Which API endpoint should be forwarded to which back-end.
All RIG instances need this information, yet consistency is not the important factor, so we went for a PA/EL design, that is, eventual consistency in all cases.
To distribute the state information among the cluster, we’ve relied on the Presence Framework, which is a module of Phoenix. Presence itself is built on top of PubSub, another great Phoenix module, which is used to disseminate messages throughout the cluster, in a broadcast-like fashion. Presence uses PubSub to send CRDTs around, which contain the who-is-where session state. The connection state mapped to the actual connection (Erlang) processes; the VM then notifies Presence as soon as one of those processes dies, which Presence in turn broadcasts to the other nodes.
The blacklist is implemented using Presence as well, but each node tracks its own blacklist and manages its own timeouts. The reason for this is that in the case of connection state information, we want the state to go down with the respective node. But in case of the blacklist, we need to retain the information in any case. Because the blacklist is known to anyone, the blacklist API can be invoked on any node. Even though the blacklist is stored in-memory only, it won’t vanish as long as there is at least one node online.
Again, the API endpoint configuration uses the same mechanism, along with a chunk of logic to deal with configuration updates properly.
There are lots of ideas about RIG for the future, and we’ll continue to work on the project in the open. We’re excited to release our first milestone to the open source community. Let us know what you think! Find us on Github.
About Kevin Bader
Kevin Bader is a software engineer and technical architect at Accenture. He likes open source, microservice architecture and Elixir, so he loves this project :)